2017年12月23日 星期六

note for "The Art of Readable Code" - CH3 & CH4


CH3, Names That Can’t Be Misconstrued

Actively scrutinize your names by asking yourself, “What other meanings could someone interpret from this name?”

  1. 比如results = Database.all_objects.filter("year <= 2011")的結果是<= 2011還是過濾了<= 2011的結果?如果用select()或exclude()會更為明確


  2. 對於含有邊界意思的, 可以使用"min_"與"max_"加以辨識.


  3. 對於閉區間使用first與end, 而半開放區間使用begin與end, 因為這些已經在C++中成為慣例了.


  4. 關於bool則可以加上is, has, can, should等意思會更明確, 如
  5. bool user_is_authed = true
    會比下面這行更容易被明確
    bool read_password = true
    


  6. get*()(開頭的function), 通常指直接回傳內部成員, 如果還需要計算, 最好改用compute*()或count*(),


CH4, Aesthetics

這個章節是在講述, 好的排版會讓人更容易看懂code, 以下是我摘要的幾個範例
  1. 給予參數一些註解
  2. public class PerformanceTester {
       // TcpConnectionSimulator(throughput, latency, jitter, packet_loss)
       //                            [Kbps]   [ms]     [ms]    [percent]
       public static final TcpConnectionSimulator wifi =
           new TcpConnectionSimulator(500,     80,     200,     1);
       public static final TcpConnectionSimulator t3_fiber =
           new TcpConnectionSimulator(45000,   10,       0,     0);
       public static final TcpConnectionSimulator cell =
           new TcpConnectionSimulator(100,    400,     250,     5);
    }
    

  3. 讓參數對齊
  4. CheckFullName("Doug Adams"  , "Mr. Douglas Adams" , "");
    CheckFullName(" Jake Brown ", "Mr. Jake Brown III", "");
    CheckFullName("No Such Guy" , ""                  , "no match found");
    CheckFullName("John"        , ""                  , "more than one result");
    

  5. 段落分明
  6. def suggest_new_friends(user, email_password):
      # Get the user's friends' email addresses.
      friends = user.friends()
      friend_emails = set(f.email for f in friends)
    
      # Import all email addresses from this user's email account.
      contacts = import_contacts(user.email, email_password)
      contact_emails = set(c.email for c in contacts)
    
      # Find matching users that they aren't already friends with.
      non_friend_emails = contact_emails - friend_emails
      suggested_friends = User.objects.select(email__in=non_friend_emails)
    

Consistent style is more important than the “right” style. 無論你是用什麼coding style, 一致性會比你用“對”的style更重要.
    參考資料:
  • The Art of Readable Code



note for "The Art of Readable Code" - CH1 & CH2


CH1, Code Should Be Easy to Understand

Code should be written to minimize the time it would take for someone else to understand it.

越容易理解的code是越好的, 雖然減少程式碼數量是很好的目標, 但是縮短理解的時間是更為重要的, 甚至於超越效能, 比如
bucket = FindBucket(key);
if (bucket != NULL) assert(!bucket->IsOccupied());
會比下面這行更容易被理解
assert((!(bucket = FindBucket(key))) || !bucket->IsOccupied());

CH2, Pack information into your names

提高可讀性可以從"好的名稱", "好的註解", "簡潔的編排方式"著手, 比如, 將資訊放入名稱中
void download_page(url);
或
void fetch_page(url);
會比下面這行更容易被理解
void get_page(url);


名稱選擇上也需要注意, 比如open(), begin(), create(), launch()會比start()來的明確, 盡量用明確的命名, 比如tmp_file會比tmp更明確, 比如
var start = (new Date()).getTime();
...
var elasped = (new Date()).getTime();
..
會比下面這行更容易被明確
var ms_start = (new Date()).getTime();
...
var ms_elasped = (new Date()).getTime();
..


排除不必要的詞彙, 比如
ToString();
會比下面這行更簡潔
ConveterToString();

ServerLoop();
會比下面這行更簡潔
DoServerLoop();


我也習慣在static function,使用"_"開頭, 比如
static void _sleep();
void sleep();


Pack information into your names的幾個重點

• Use specific words—for example, instead of Get, words like Fetch or Download might be
better, depending on the context.
• Avoid generic names like tmp and retval, unless there’s a specific reason to use them.
• Use concrete names that describe things in more detail—the name ServerCanStart() is
vague compared to CanListenOnPort().
• Attach important details to variable names—for example, append _ms to a variable
whose value is in milliseconds or prepend raw_ to an unprocessed variable that needs
escaping.
• Use longer names for larger scopes—don’t use cryptic one- or two-letter names for
variables that span multiple screens; shorter names are better for variables that span only
a few lines.
• Use capitalization, underscores, and so on in a meaningful way—for example, you
can append “_” to class members to distinguish them from local variables.

    參考資料:
  • The Art of Readable Code



2017年12月9日 星期六

Note for Yocto Project Reference Manual v2.4 - ch8.141 update-alternatives.bbclass


當有多個recipes提供相同的命令時, update-alternatives.bbclass可以幫你做替代("alternative"), 例如,可以從busybox,binutils和elfutils中使用ar命令。 update-alternatives.bbclass會幫你重新命名,以便安裝多個package而不會發生衝突。無論安裝或隨後刪除哪些package,ar命令仍然有效。
要使用update-alternatives.bbclass,你需要為這個package定義一些變量:
ALTERNATIVE_ = "name1 name2 name3 ..."
列出所有這個package的alternatives指令

設定name這個命令的link的路徑
ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[name] = "target"

設定該package的預設priority,數值越大,priority越高
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY

針對特定命令另外設定priority,數值越大,priority越高
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY[name] = "20"


範例

brook這個package的檔案結構
brook@vista:~/oe-core/meta/recipes-devtools/brook$ tree
.
|-- brook-1.0.0
|   |-- brookbox
|   |-- copyright
|   `-- insmod
`-- brook_1.0.0.bb

1 directory, 4 files
brookbox類似busybox,後面會有多個檔案link到該檔案,而insmod是一個獨立檔案

brook_1.0.0.bb
SUMMARY = "Brook demo update-alternatives"
DESCRIPTION = "This package is used for Brook to demo update-alternatives"
LICENSE = "GPLv2+"
LIC_FILES_CHKSUM = "file://${WORKDIR}/copyright;md5=afcc69d729fbf1d0a2af28ce44a23991 \
"
SRC_URI = "file://insmod \
        file://copyright \
        file://brookbox \
"
inherit update-alternatives

ALTERNATIVE_${PN} = "insmod route reboot shutdown poweroff"
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY = "100"

ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[insmod] = "${base_sbindir}/insmod"
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY[insmod] = "50"

ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[route] = "${base_sbindir}/route"
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY[route] = "50"

ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[reboot] = "${base_sbindir}/reboot"

ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[shutdown] = "${base_sbindir}/shutdown"
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY[shutdown] = "10"

ALTERNATIVE_LINK_NAME[poweroff] = "${base_sbindir}/poweroff"
ALTERNATIVE_PRIORITY[poweroff] = "500"

do_install () {
        install -d                              ${D}${base_sbindir}
        install -m 0755    ${WORKDIR}/insmod    ${D}${base_sbindir}/insmod
        install -m 0755    ${WORKDIR}/brookbox  ${D}${base_sbindir}/brook
        ln -s ${base_sbindir}/brook ${D}${base_sbindir}/route
        ln -s ${base_sbindir}/brook ${D}${base_sbindir}/reboot
        ln -s ${base_sbindir}/brook ${D}${base_sbindir}/shutdown
        ln -s ${base_sbindir}/brook ${D}${base_sbindir}/poweroff
}
sysvinit也同時註冊了reboot,shutdown與poweroff,其priority都是200,而這裡的priority分別為100,10,500,所以最後結果如下

brook@vista:~/oe-core/build/tmp-glibc/work/oe-linux-gnueabi/image/1.0-r0/rootfs$ ls -al sbin/|grep brook
-rwxr-xr-x  1 jenkins jenkins      6 Dec  9 22:17 brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     18 Dec  9 22:17 insmod -> /sbin/insmod.brook
-rwxr-xr-x  1 jenkins jenkins      6 Dec  9 22:17 insmod.brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     20 Dec  9 22:17 poweroff -> /sbin/poweroff.brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     11 Dec  9 22:17 poweroff.brook -> /sbin/brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     11 Dec  9 22:17 reboot.brook -> /sbin/brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     17 Dec  9 22:17 route -> /sbin/route.brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     11 Dec  9 22:17 route.brook -> /sbin/brook
lrwxrwxrwx  1 jenkins jenkins     11 Dec  9 22:17 shutdown.brook -> /sbin/brook

reboot與shutdown都小於sysvinit,所以不適用brook,poweroff高於sysvinit,所以使用brook這個package提供的命令





2017年11月25日 星期六

An Sample Code for Syslogd - A log pattern with categorize, level and format


寫程式常常需要有log system用於debug,大程式常常會有很多thread或是模組,我們想根據模組分類,並且給予log特定等級,如ERR/INFO/DEBUG等等,也會希望多打印一些資訊,如function name,TPID等等,這裡就是要提供這些功能的sample code,此外,根據syslog_r for Linux?說的According to the POSIX specification, the syslog function is already thread-safe, and so implemented in Linux. So syslog_r is unnecessary - use syslog if you need a reentrant logger function.

brook-log.h

#ifndef _LOG_H_
#define _LOG_H_
#include <syslog.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/syscall.h>

/*************************************************
 * TYPE
 *************************************************/
enum log_type {
/* 這裡我先設定有三個類別,分別為AT,CORE與DB,之後請自行新增刪減修改 */
       LOG_TYPE_AT,
       LOG_TYPE_CORE,
       LOG_TYPE_DB,
       LOG_TYPE_MAX
};

/***** internal function for MACRO used *****/
void _log_type_toggle(enum log_type type);
void _log_type_clr(enum log_type type);
void _log_type_set(enum log_type type);

/***** public function to enable/disable log on certain type *****/
#define log_type_toggle(type) _log_type_toggle(LOG_TYPE_##type)
#define log_type_clr(type) _log_type_clr(LOG_TYPE_##type)
#define log_type_set(type) _log_type_set(LOG_TYPE_##type)

char *get_log_type_status(void);


/*************************************************
 * Format
 *************************************************/
enum log_fmt {
 LOG_FMT_FUNC_AND_LINE,
 LOG_FMT_TID, ///< thread ID.
 LOG_FMT_LOG_TYPE,
 LOG_FMT_LOG_LEVEL,
 LOG_FMT_MAX,
};

/***** internal function for MACRO used *****/
void _log_fmt_toggle(enum log_fmt fmt);
void _log_fmt_set(enum log_fmt fmt);
void _log_fmt_clr(enum log_fmt fmt);
int _log_fmt_is_set(enum log_fmt fmt);

/***** public function to enable/disable certain format type *****/
#define log_fmt_toggle(fmt) _log_fmt_toggle(LOG_FMT_##fmt)
#define log_fmt_set(fmt) _log_fmt_set(LOG_FMT_##fmt)
#define log_fmt_clr(fmt) _log_fmt_clr(LOG_FMT_##fmt)
#define log_fmt_is_set(fmt) _log_fmt_is_set(LOG_FMT_##fmt)


/*************************************************
 * Level
 *************************************************/
/***** internal function for MACRO used *****/
int _log_type_level_is(enum log_type type, int *level);
int _log_type_level_set(enum log_type type, int level);

/***** public function to set debug level. the level is leveraged from syslog *****/
#define log_type_level_is(type, level) _log_type_level_is(LOG_TYPE_##type, level)
#define log_type_level_set(type, level) _log_type_level_set(LOG_TYPE_##type, LOG_##level)

void log_pr(enum log_type type, int level, char const * const fmt, ...);

#define _log_pr(type, level, fmt, ...)                 \
do {                                                    \
        unsigned char func[36] = {}, tid[16] = {}, tp[16] = {}, lv[16] = {};\
        if (log_fmt_is_set(FUNC_AND_LINE)) {    \
                snprintf(func, sizeof(func) - 1, "%s(#%d), ", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__);   \
        }                                               \
                                                        \
        if (log_fmt_is_set(TID)) {              \
                snprintf(tid, sizeof(tid) - 1, "TID:%ld, ", syscall(__NR_gettid));       \
        }                                               \
                                                        \
        if (log_fmt_is_set(LOG_TYPE)) {         \
                snprintf(tp, sizeof(tp) - 1, "%s, ", #type);     \
        }                                               \
        if (log_fmt_is_set(LOG_TYPE)) {         \
                snprintf(tp, sizeof(lv) - 1, "%s, ", #level);     \
        }                                               \
        log_pr(LOG_TYPE_##type, LOG_##level, "%s%s%s%s"fmt, func, tid, tp, lv, ##__VA_ARGS__);     \
} while(0)

/***** public function *****/
/* 請呼叫下面MACRO來印log */
#define pr_emerg(type, fmt, ...)  _log_pr(type, EMERG, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_alert(type, fmt, ...)  _log_pr(type, ALERT, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_crit(type, fmt, ...)   _log_pr(type, CRIT, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_err(type, fmt, ...)    _log_pr(type, ERR, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_warn(type, fmt, ...)   _log_pr(type, WARNING, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_notice(type, fmt, ...) _log_pr(type, NOTICE, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_info(type, fmt, ...)   _log_pr(type, INFO, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)
#define pr_dbg(type, fmt, ...)    _log_pr(type, DEBUG, fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__)

#endif


brook-log.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <syslog.h>
#include "brook-log.h"

#define DEFAULT_LOG_TYPE ((1 << LOG_TYPE_AT) | \
   (1 << LOG_TYPE_CORE) | \
   (1 << LOG_TYPE_DB))

#define DEFAULT_LOG_FMT ((1 << LOG_FMT_FUNC_AND_LINE) | \
   (1 << LOG_FMT_TID) | \
   (1 << LOG_FMT_LOG_TYPE))

static unsigned int _log_types = DEFAULT_LOG_TYPE;
static unsigned int _log_fmts = DEFAULT_LOG_FMT;

#define DEFAULT_LOG_OPTION (LOG_CONS | LOG_NDELAY)
#define DEFAULT_LOG_FACILITY LOG_LOCAL0
#define DEFAULT_LOG_LEVEL LOG_INFO

char const * const level_str[] = {
 [LOG_EMERG] = "EMERG",
 [LOG_ALERT] = "ALERT",
 [LOG_CRIT] = "CRIT",
 [LOG_ERR] = "ERR",
 [LOG_WARNING] = "WARN",
 [LOG_NOTICE] = "NOTICE",
 [LOG_INFO] = "INFO",
 [LOG_DEBUG] = "DEBUG",
};

char const * const level_fmt_str[] = {
 [LOG_FMT_FUNC_AND_LINE] = "FUNC_AND_LINE",
 [LOG_FMT_TID] = "TID",
 [LOG_FMT_LOG_TYPE] = "LOG_TYPE",
};

#define AR_SZ(a) (sizeof(a)/sizeof(a[0]))

#define BIT_SET(_v, _b) \
do {   \
 (_v) |= (1 << (_b));\
} while(0)

#define BIT_CLR(_v, _b) \
do {   \
 (_v) &= ~(1 << (_b));\
} while(0)

#define BIT_TOGGLE(_v, _b)  \
do {    \
 (_v) ^= (1 <<(_b)); \
} while(0)

int _log_fmt_is_set(enum log_fmt fmt)
{
 if (_log_fmts & (1 << fmt)) {
  return 1;
 }
 return 0;
}

void _log_fmt_set(enum log_fmt fmt)
{
 BIT_SET(_log_fmts, fmt);
}

void _log_fmt_clr(enum log_fmt fmt)
{
 BIT_CLR(_log_fmts, fmt);
}

void _log_fmt_toggle(enum log_fmt fmt)
{
 BIT_TOGGLE(_log_fmts, fmt);
}

struct log_type_str_and_level {
 char const * const name;
 int level;
} log_type_str_and_level [] = {
/* TYPE有增減,請更新這個ARRAY */
 [LOG_TYPE_AT] = { "AT", DEFAULT_LOG_LEVEL},
 [LOG_TYPE_CORE] = { "CORE", DEFAULT_LOG_LEVEL},
 [LOG_TYPE_DB] = { "DB", DEFAULT_LOG_LEVEL},
 [LOG_TYPE_MAX] = { "MAX", DEFAULT_LOG_LEVEL},
};

int _log_type_level_is(enum log_type type, int *level)
{
 if (type >= 0 && type < AR_SZ(log_type_str_and_level)) {
  *level = log_type_str_and_level[type].level;
  return 0;
 }
 return -1;
}

int _log_type_level_set(enum log_type type, int level)
{
 if (type >= 0 && type < AR_SZ(log_type_str_and_level) && level >= 0 && level <= LOG_DEBUG) {
  log_type_str_and_level[type].level = level;
  return 0;
 }
 return -1;
}

int log_type_is_set(enum log_type type)
{
 if (_log_types & (1 << type)) {
  return 1;
 }
 return 0;
}

void _log_type_set(enum log_type type)
{
 BIT_SET(_log_types, type);
}

void _log_type_clr(enum log_type type)
{
 BIT_CLR(_log_types, type);
}

void _log_type_toggle(enum log_type type)
{
 BIT_TOGGLE(_log_types, type);
}

void log_pr(enum log_type type, int level, char const * const fmt, ...)
{
 va_list ap;
 if ((_log_types & (1 << type)) && (log_type_str_and_level[type].level >= level)) {
  va_start(ap, fmt);
  vsyslog(LOG_MAKEPRI(LOG_LOCAL0, level), fmt, ap);
  va_end(ap);
 }
}

char *get_log_type_status_str(void)
{
 int i = 0, re_sz;
 static char buf[1024], *p;

 p = buf;
 re_sz = sizeof(buf);
 p += snprintf(p, re_sz, "%2s %-16s %-10s %-12s\r\n", "id", "type", "status", "level");

 for (i = 0; i < AR_SZ(log_type_str_and_level); i++) {
  re_sz = sizeof(buf) - (p - buf);
  if (re_sz < 1) {
   break;
  }
  p += snprintf(p, re_sz, "%2d %-16s %-10s %-12s\r\n", i, log_type_str_and_level[i].name,
   log_type_is_set((enum log_type)i) ? "enabled" : "disabled",
   level_str[log_type_str_and_level[i].level]);
 }
 return buf;
}

char *get_log_fmt_status_str(void)
{
 int i = 0, re_sz;
 static char buf[256], *p;

 p = buf;
 re_sz = sizeof(buf);
 p += snprintf(p, re_sz, "%2s %-16s %-12s\r\n", "id", "fmt", "status");

 for (i = 0; i < AR_SZ(level_fmt_str); i++) {
  re_sz = sizeof(buf) - (p - buf);
  if (re_sz < 1) {
   break;
  }
  p += snprintf(p, re_sz, "%2d %-16s %-12s\r\n", i, level_fmt_str[i],
   _log_fmt_is_set((enum log_fmt)i) ? "enabled" : "disabled");
 }
 return buf;
}

void init_brook_log(void)
{
 openlog(NULL, DEFAULT_LOG_OPTION, DEFAULT_LOG_FACILITY);
}

void exit_brook_log(void)
{
 closelog();
}

void init_brook_log() __attribute__ ((constructor (101)));
void exit_brook_log() __attribute__ ((destructor (101)));



main.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include "brook-log.h"

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 0);

 log_type_clr(AT);
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 1);

 log_type_set(AT);
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 2);


 log_fmt_toggle(FUNC_AND_LINE);
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 3);

 log_fmt_clr(TID);
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 4);

 log_type_level_set(AT, ERR);
 pr_info(AT, "AT=%d", 5);

 return 0;
}

結果

brook@vista:~/sample/syslog$ gcc main.c brook-log.c -o brook-log
brook@vista:~/sample/syslog$ brook-log
brook@vista:~/sample/syslog$ tail /var/log/local.log
Nov 26 09:51:26 vista brook-log: main(#6), TID:21765, INFO, AT=0
Nov 26 09:51:26 vista brook-log: main(#12), TID:21765, INFO, AT=2
Nov 26 09:51:26 vista brook-log: TID:21765, INFO, AT=3
Nov 26 09:51:26 vista brook-log: INFO, AT=4




MQTT sample code using libmosquitto


Sample code for publisher

#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <mosquitto.h>

// Server connection parameters
#define MQTT_HOSTNAME "localhost"
#define MQTT_PORT 1883
#define MQTT_TOPIC "/brook"

struct brook_obj {
 unsigned long long published;
 unsigned long long connected;
 unsigned long long disconnected;
 unsigned long long loged;
};

/*
 mosq the mosquitto instance making the callback.
 obj the user data provided in mosquitto_new
 rc the return code of the connection response, one of:
*/
static void connect_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int rc)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->connected++;
        printf("%s(), connect:%llu, published:%llu, loged:%llu, rc:%d\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->published, bobj->loged, rc);
}

static void publish_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int mid)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->published++;
        printf("%s(), connect:%llu, published:%llu, loged:%llu, mid:%d\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->published, bobj->loged, mid);
}

static void log_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int level, const char *str)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->loged++;
        printf("%s(), connect:%llu, published:%llu, loged:%llu, level:%d,\n\tstr:%s\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->published, bobj->loged, level, str);
}

static void disconnect_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int rc)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->disconnected++;
        printf("%s(), connect:%llu, published:%llu, loged:%llu, disconnected:%llu\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->published, bobj->loged, bobj->disconnected);
}

/*
 * Start here
 */
int main (int argc, char **argv)
{
 char clientid[24], text[20];
 struct mosquitto *mosq = NULL;
 unsigned long long i;
 int rc, major, minor, rev;
 struct brook_obj brook_obj = {};

 /* Must be called before any other mosquitto functions.
    This function is not thread safe. */
  mosquitto_lib_init();

  rc = mosquitto_lib_version(&major, &minor, &rev);
  fprintf(stdout, "rc:%d, major:%d, minor:%d, rev:%d\n",
  rc, major, minor, rev);

  memset(clientid, 0, sizeof(clientid));
  snprintf(clientid, sizeof(clientid) - 1, "cid-pub-%d", getpid());
  mosq = mosquitto_new(clientid, true, &brook_obj);
 if (!mosq) {
  fprintf (stderr, "new mosq failed \n");
  exit(-1);
 }

  rc = mosquitto_tls_opts_set(mosq, 1, "tlsv1", NULL);
 if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set tls failed %d\n", rc);
  exit (-1);
 }

  rc = mosquitto_tls_set(mosq, "ca/client/ca.crt", NULL, "ca/client/client.crt", "ca/client/client.key", NULL);
  if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set tls failed %d\n", rc);
  exit (-1);
  }

   rc = mosquitto_tls_insecure_set(mosq, true);
  if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set insecure failed %d\n", rc);
  exit (-1);
  }

 // Set callback function
  mosquitto_connect_callback_set(mosq, connect_cb);
  mosquitto_publish_callback_set(mosq, publish_cb);
  mosquitto_log_callback_set(mosq, log_cb);
  mosquitto_disconnect_callback_set(mosq, disconnect_cb);

  rc = mosquitto_connect(mosq, MQTT_HOSTNAME, MQTT_PORT, 60);
  if (rc) {
   fprintf (stderr, "Can't connect to Mosquitto server. %d\n", rc);
   exit (-1);
  }

  for (i = 0; i < 10 ;i++) {
   sprintf(text, "%llu", i);
   printf("send %d, %s\n", (int)strlen(text), text);
   // Publish the message to the topic
  rc = mosquitto_publish(mosq, NULL, MQTT_TOPIC, strlen(text), text, 2, false);
  if (rc) {
   fprintf (stderr, "Can't publish to Mosquitto server\n");
   exit (-1);
  }
  if (!(i % 3)) {
   do {
    rc = mosquitto_loop(mosq, 3, 1);
    fprintf (stdout, "mosquitto_loop %d, published:%llu, i:%llu\n",
      rc, brook_obj.published, i);
   } while(rc == 0 && brook_obj.published < i);
  }
 }

 do {
  rc = mosquitto_loop(mosq, 3, 1);
  fprintf (stdout, "mosquitto_loop %d, published:%llu, i:%llu\n",
    rc, brook_obj.published, i);
 } while(rc == 0 && brook_obj.published != i);

 // Tidy up
 mosquitto_disconnect(mosq);
 mosquitto_destroy(mosq);
 mosquitto_lib_cleanup();

 return 0;
}



Sample code subscriber

#include <signal.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#include <mosquitto.h>

#define MQTT_HOSTNAME "localhost" 
#define MQTT_PORT 1883 
#define MQTT_TOPIC "/brook/#"

struct brook_obj {
 unsigned long long msgs;
 unsigned long long connected;
 unsigned long long disconnected;
 unsigned long long loged;
 unsigned long long subscribed;
 unsigned long long unsubscribed;
};

/*
 mosq the mosquitto instance making the callback.
 obj the user data provided in mosquitto_new
 rc the return code of the connection response, one of:
*/
static void connect_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int rc)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->connected++;
 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, rc:%d\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, rc);
}

static void log_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int level, const char *str)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->loged++;
 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, level:%d,\n\tstr:%s\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, level, str);
}

static void disconnect_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int rc)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->disconnected++;
 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, disconnected:%llu\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, bobj->disconnected);
}

static void message_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, const struct mosquitto_message *message)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->msgs++;
 bool match = 0;
 static unsigned long long i = 0, j = 0;

 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, disconnected:%llu\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, bobj->disconnected);
 printf("%s(), got message mid:%d, '%.*s' for topic '%s'\n",
  __FUNCTION__, message->mid, message->payloadlen, (char*) message->payload, message->topic);

 mosquitto_topic_matches_sub(MQTT_TOPIC, message->topic, &match);
 if (match) {
  printf("got matched topic to %s\n", MQTT_TOPIC);
 }
}

static void unsubscribe_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int mid)
{
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->unsubscribed++;
 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, disconnected:%llu, unsubscribed:%llu\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, bobj->disconnected,
  bobj->unsubscribed);
}

static void subscribe_cb(struct mosquitto *mosq, void *obj, int mid, int qos_count, const int *granted_qos)
{
 int i;
 struct brook_obj *bobj = (struct brook_obj*) obj;
 bobj->subscribed++;
 printf("%s(), mid:%d, qos_count:%d\n",
  __FUNCTION__, mid, qos_count);
 for (i = 0; i < qos_count; i++) {
  printf("\tQ[%d]:%d\n", i, granted_qos[i]);
 }
 printf("%s(), connect:%llu, msgs:%llu, loged:%llu, disconnected:%llu, subscribed:%llu\n",
  __FUNCTION__, bobj->connected, bobj->msgs, bobj->loged, bobj->disconnected,
  bobj->subscribed);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
 char clientid[24];
 struct mosquitto *mosq;
 int rc = 0;
 struct brook_obj brook_obj = {};

 mosquitto_lib_init();

 memset(clientid, 0, sizeof(clientid));
 snprintf(clientid, sizeof(clientid) - 1, "cid-sub-%d", getpid());
 mosq = mosquitto_new(clientid, true, &brook_obj);
 if (!mosq) {
  fprintf (stderr, "new mosq failed\n");
  exit(-1);
 }

 rc = mosquitto_tls_opts_set(mosq, 1, "tlsv1", NULL);
 if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set tls opt failed %d\n", rc);
  exit(-1);
 }

 rc = mosquitto_tls_insecure_set(mosq, true);
 if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set insecure failed %d\n", rc);
  exit(-1);
 }

 rc = mosquitto_tls_set(mosq, "ca/client/ca.crt", NULL, "ca/client/client.crt", "ca/client/client.key", NULL);
 if (rc) {
  fprintf (stderr, "set tls failed %d\n", rc);
  exit(-1);
 }

 mosquitto_connect_callback_set(mosq, connect_cb);
 mosquitto_log_callback_set(mosq, log_cb);
 mosquitto_subscribe_callback_set(mosq, subscribe_cb);
 mosquitto_unsubscribe_callback_set(mosq, unsubscribe_cb);
 mosquitto_message_callback_set(mosq, message_cb);
 mosquitto_disconnect_callback_set(mosq, disconnect_cb);

 rc = mosquitto_connect(mosq, MQTT_HOSTNAME, MQTT_PORT, 60);
 if (rc) {
  fprintf(stderr, "mosquitto_connect failed. %d\n", rc);
  exit(-1);
 }

 mosquitto_subscribe(mosq, NULL, MQTT_TOPIC, 1);

 do {
  rc = mosquitto_loop(mosq, 3000, 1);
  fprintf(stdout, "mosquitto_loop %d, msgs%llu\n",
   rc, brook_obj.msgs);
 } while(rc == 0 && brook_obj.msgs < 5);

 mosquitto_disconnect(mosq);
 mosquitto_destroy(mosq);
 mosquitto_lib_cleanup();

 return rc;
}

2017年11月5日 星期日

MQTT


MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT)網路文章已經很多,也很完善,大家可以參考本文章後面的reference,這裡快速帶過幾個重點:
MQTT是一個輕量級的基於broker的Publish/Subscribe messaging protocol,旨在實現開放,簡單,輕量級和易於實現。
協議的特點包括:
  • 提供一對多的訊息發布
  • 三種QoS
    "At most once" - message丟失或重複可能發生。
    "At least once" - 確保message到達,但可能會發生重複。
    "Exactly once" - 確保message只送達一次。

MQTT Architecture(Publish/Subscribe with broker)

MQTT有三種主要的組成元件,分別為Publisher、Subscriber以及Broker。 Publisher為訊息的來源,它會將訊息(Topic)發送給Broker,而Subscriber向Broker註冊,表示他們想要接收某Topic訊息;因此當有某個Publisher對Broker發送Topic訊息時,只要是有對此Topic註冊的Subscriber,都會收到此則訊息。

Topic wildcards

Topic為UTF-8編碼字串,最長長度為32,767字元,Topic支援階層式命名方式,如:"住家/客廳/溫度",階層的分隔符號為"/",所以前面這個Topic有三層架構,Topic可以透過萬用字元一次訂閱多個主題。但是這些萬用字元只能放在最後一層
"#"為Multi-level wildcard,可以包含零個以上的階層,如有人送出"a/b/c/d",那以下訂閱都可以被match "a/b/c/d","#","a/#","a/b/#","a/b/c/#","+/b/c/#",
"+"為Single-level wildcard,只能包含該層的Topic,如有人送出"a/b/c/d",那以下訂閱都可以被match “a/b/c/d","+/b/c/d","a/+/c/d","a/+/+/d","+/+/+/+",而以下這些事不能match的"a/b/c","b/+/c/d","+/+/+"

Deom the MQTT - mosquitto

請用apt-get install mosquitto mosquitto-clients安裝mosquitto套件
run the broker
brook@vista:~$ mosquitto -v
1511094611: mosquitto version 1.4.8 (build date Mon, 26 Jun 2017 09:31:02 +0100) starting
1511094611: Using default config.
1511094611: Opening ipv4 listen socket on port 1883.
1511094611: Opening ipv6 listen socket on port 1883.
1511094635: New connection from 127.0.0.1 on port 1883.
1511094635: New client connected from 127.0.0.1 as mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (c1, k60). 有人連上就會顯示
1511094635: Sending CONNACK to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (0, 0)
1511094635: Received SUBSCRIBE from mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit
1511094635:     /brook/L1 (QoS 0)
1511094635: mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit 0 /brook/L1
1511094635: Sending SUBACK to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit
1511094659: New connection from 127.0.0.1 on port 1883.
1511094659: New client connected from 127.0.0.1 as mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (c1, k60).
1511094659: Sending CONNACK to mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (0, 0)
1511094659: Received PUBLISH from mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (d0, q0, r0, m0, '/brook/L1', ... (11 bytes))
1511094659: Sending PUBLISH to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (d0, q0, r0, m0, '/brook/L1', ... (11 bytes))
1511094659: Received DISCONNECT from mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit
1511094659: Client mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit disconnected.

向Broker註冊topic "/brook/L1"
brook@vista:~$ mosquitto_sub -h localhost -t '/brook/L1'
test for L1有人向Broker推送/brook/L1訊息就會顯示

向Broker推送topic "/brook/L1"的訊息
brook@vista:~$ mosquitto_pub -h localhost -t '/brook/L1' -m 'test for L1'

mosquitto - Broker log notes

brook@vista:~$ mosquitto -v
1511094635: New client connected from 127.0.0.1 as mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (c1, k60). 

mosquitto-1.4.8/src/read_handle_server.c
521 if(context->username){
522   _mosquitto_log_printf(NULL, MOSQ_LOG_NOTICE, 
                           "New client connected from %s as %s (c%d, k%d, u'%s').",
                            context->address, client_id, clean_session, 
                            context->keepalive, context->username);
523 }else{
524   _mosquitto_log_printf(NULL, MOSQ_LOG_NOTICE,
                           "New client connected from %s as %s (c%d, k%d).", 
                           context->address, client_id, clean_session,
                           context->keepalive);
525 }

1511094635: Sending CONNACK to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (0, 0)
1511094635: Received SUBSCRIBE from mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit
1511094635:     /brook/L1 (QoS 0)

man mqtt
QUALITY OF SERVICE
  MQTT defines three levels of Quality of Service (QoS). The QoS defines how hard the 
  broker/client will try to ensure that a message is received. Messages may be sent 
  at any QoS level, and clients may attempt to subscribe to topics at any QoS level.
  This means that the client chooses the maximum QoS it will receive. For example, 
  if a message is published at QoS 2 and a client is subscribed with QoS 0, the 
  message will be delivered to that client with QoS 0. If a second client is also 
  subscribed to the same topic, but with QoS 2, then it will receive the same message 
  but with QoS 2. For a second example, if a client is subscribed with QoS 2 and a 
  message is published on QoS 0, the client will receive it on QoS 0.

  Higher levels of QoS are more reliable, but involve higher latency and have higher bandwidth requirements.
    o 0: The broker/client will deliver the message once, with no confirmation.
    o 1: The broker/client will deliver the message at least once, with confirmation required.
    o 2: The broker/client will deliver the message exactly once by using a four step handshake.

1511094635: mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit 0 /brook/L1
1511094635: Sending SUBACK to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit
1511094659: New connection from 127.0.0.1 on port 1883.
1511094659: New client connected from 127.0.0.1 as mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (c1, k60).
1511094659: Sending CONNACK to mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (0, 0)
1511094659: Received PUBLISH from mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit (d0, q0, r0, m0, '/brook/L1', ... (11 bytes))

mosquitto-1.4.8/src/read_handle.c
217 _mosquitto_log_printf(NULL, MOSQ_LOG_DEBUG, 
                          "Received PUBLISH from %s (d%d, q%d, r%d, m%d, '%s', ... (%ld bytes))",
                          context->id, dup, qos, retain, mid, topic, (long)payloadlen);

1511094659: Sending PUBLISH to mosqsub/16408-jpr-Verit (d0, q0, r0, m0, '/brook/L1', ... (11 bytes))

mosquitto-1.4.8/lib/send_mosq.c
156 _mosquitto_log_printf(NULL, MOSQ_LOG_DEBUG, 
                          "Sending PUBLISH to %s (d%d, q%d, r%d, m%d, '%s', ... (%ld bytes))",
                          mosq->id, dup, qos, retain, mid, mapped_topic, (long)payloadlen);

1511094659: Received DISCONNECT from mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit
1511094659: Client mosqpub/16687-jpr-Verit disconnected.



2017年7月29日 星期六

A pattern for state machine


State machine是很常見的應用/Pattern,這章節會根據下面的圖來實作State machine pattern


enum state {
 STATE_INITIAL = 0,
 STATE_1,
 STATE_2,
 STATE_3,
 STATE_4,
};

enum event {
 E1 = 1,
 E2,
 E3,
 E4,
};
先定義State Machine狀態與Event



struct instance_data {
 enum event evt;
 int data;
};

struct instance {
 enum state cur_state;
 struct instance_data data;
};
定義一個struct來儲存"現在狀態",Event與data



typedef enum state state_func_t(struct instance_data *data);

state_func_t* const state_table[] = {
 [STATE_INITIAL] = in_init,
 [STATE_1] = in_state_1,
 [STATE_2] = in_state_2,
 [STATE_3] = in_state_3,
 [STATE_4] = in_state_4,
};

void run_state(struct instance *inst)
{
 inst->cur_state = state_table[inst->cur_state](&(inst->data));
};

建立一個Table,將每一個state對應的function填入,run_state()會根據目前的State處理該event/data,並回傳下一個狀態



enum state in_state_1(struct instance_data *data)
{
 printf("%s(#%d): got EVT:%d\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__, data->evt);
 switch (data->evt) {
 case E1:
  printf("change to S2\n");
  return do_s2();
 case E2:
  printf("change to S3\n");
  return do_s3();
 default:
  printf("keep the same STATE && do nothing\n");
  return STATE_1;
 }
}

enum state in_state_2(struct instance_data *data)
{
 printf("%s(#%d): got EVT:%d\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__, data->evt);
 switch (data->evt) {
 case E3:
  printf("change to S3\n");
  return do_s3();
 default:
  printf("keep the same STATE && do s2 again\n");
  return do_s2(); // do s2 again
 }
}

enum state in_state_3(struct instance_data *data)
{
 printf("%s(#%d): got EVT:%d\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__, data->evt);
 switch (data->evt) {
 case E2:
  printf("change to S4\n");
  return do_s4();
 default:
  printf("keep the same STATE && do nothing\n");
  return STATE_3;
 }
}

enum state in_state_4(struct instance_data *data)
{
 printf("%s(#%d): got EVT:%d\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__, data->evt);
 switch (data->evt) {
 case E1:
  printf("change to S2\n");
  return do_s2();
 case E3:
  printf("change to S1\n");
  return do_s1();
 default:
  printf("keep the same STATE && do again\n");
  return do_s4();
 }
}
定義每一個狀態中的行為



enum state do_s1(void)
{
 printf("%s(#%d)\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__);
 return STATE_1;
}

enum state do_s2(void)
{
 printf("%s(#%d)\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__);
 return STATE_2;
}

enum state do_s3(void)
{
 printf("%s(#%d)\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__);
 return STATE_3;
}

enum state do_s4(void)
{
 printf("%s(#%d)\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__);
 return STATE_4;
}

enum state in_init(struct instance_data *data)
{
 printf("%s(#%d): do some init. E:%d\n", __FUNCTION__, __LINE__, data->evt);
 printf("change to S1\n");
 return STATE_1;
}
定義進入每一個狀態要執行的動作



int main( void ) {
 int ch;
 struct instance inst = {STATE_INITIAL, 0};
 while ( 1 ) {
  run_state(&inst);
  // do other program logic, run other state machines, etc
  printf("MENU: E1/E2/E3/E4\n");
  while(((ch = getc(stdin)) == '\n') || (ch <= '0') || (ch > '4'));
  inst.data.evt = ch - '0';
 }
}
main function模擬State Machine收到不同event(1~4)


以下是收到event 1, 2, 3, 4的執行結果





2017年7月8日 星期六

How to send a html email with the bash command "mail"/“sendmail”?


有時我們會需要透過Linux發送一些report mail,這時候我們就可以用mail這個指令
brook@vista:~/kernel$ ls | txt2html| mail --debug-level=7 -s 'show kernel floder' rene3210@gmail.com
mail: sendmail (/usr/sbin/sendmailn
mail: Getting auth info for UID 1003
mail: source=system, name=brook, passwd=x, uid=1003, gid=1000, gecos=,,,, dir=/home/brook, shell=/bin/bash, mailbox=/var/mail/brook, quota=0, change_uid=1
mail: Getting auth info for UID 1003
mail: source=system, name=brook, passwd=x, uid=1003, gid=1000, gecos=,,,, dir=/home/brook, shell=/bin/bash, mailbox=/var/mail/brook, quota=0, change_uid=1
mail: mu_mailer_send_message(): using From: brook@vista
mail: Sending headers...
mail: Sending body...
mail: /usr/sbin/sendmail exited with: 0
mail:

上面這個指令會送出raw data,mail看到的也是顯示一些HTML內容,如
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN"
"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
<head>
<title></title>
<meta name="generator" content="HTML::TextToHTML v2.51"/>
</head>
<body>
<p>AndroidKernel.mk<br/>
<strong>COPYING</strong><br/>
<strong>CREDITS</strong><br/>
Documentation<br/>
Kbuild<br/>
Kconfig<br/>
<strong>MAINTAINERS</strong><br/>
Makefile<br/>
<strong>README</strong><br/>
<strong>REPORTING-BUGS</strong><br/>
android<br/>
arch<br/>
block<br/>
crypto<br/>
drivers<br/>
firmware<br/>
fs<br/>
include<br/>
init<br/>
ipc<br/>
kernel<br/>
lib<br/>
linaro<br/>
mm<br/>
net<br/>
samples<br/>
scripts<br/>
security<br/>
sound<br/>
tools<br/>
usr<br/>
virt</p>

</body>
</html>

如果我們要支援"Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)"只要在subject後面接上"\nContent-Type: text/html"即可
brook@vista:~/kernel$ ls | txt2html| mail --debug-level=7 -s "$(echo -e "show kernel floder\nContent-Type: text/html")" rene3210@gmail.com

也可以用"sendmail"指令來傳送mail
(
echo "From: ${from}";
echo "To: ${to}";
echo "Subject: ${subject}";
echo "Content-Type: text/html";
echo "MIME-Version: 1.0";
echo "";
echo "${message}";
) | sendmail -t

(message=`ls| txt2html`
echo "From: rene3210@gmail.com;"
echo "To: rene3210@gmail.com,rene3210@gov.tw;"
echo "Subject: Quota"
echo "Content-Type: text/html;"
echo "MIME-Version: 1.0;"
echo "${message}";
echo -e"\n\n"
) |sendmail -t


參考資料: How to send a html email with the bash command “sendmail”?



2017年4月30日 星期日

pkg-config


簡介

現在的電腦系統使用許多library package供使用者使用,但是在不同的platform使用這些library package是一件很困難的事,pkg-config收集相關的資訊並且統一的API供開發人員使用。 pkg-config利用".pc"檔的格式,記錄了一些library相關的資訊,提供對應的information給開發人員使用,以ubuntu為例,這些檔案被放置在/usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/pkgconfig、/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/pkgconfig與/usr/lib/pkgconfig等目錄,以下為directfb的.pc
brook@vista:~$ cat /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/pkgconfig/directfb.pc
prefix=/usr
exec_prefix=${prefix}
libdir=${prefix}/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu
includedir=${prefix}/include

Name: DirectFB
Description: Graphics and windowing library for the Linux frame buffer device
Version: 1.2.10
Requires: fusion direct
Libs: -L${libdir} -ldirectfb -lpthread
Libs.private: -L${libdir} -ldl
Cflags: -D_REENTRANT -I${prefix}/include/directfb
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --list-all
file_name_of_library_or_package          Name_in_pc - Description_in_pc
...
direct                         Direct - DirectFB base development library
...

PC檔內容

.pc包含了事先定義好的variable(key=value)與description(Name: description),description有以下資訊
Name: library的name。
Description: library的簡述。
URL: library的相關URL。
Version: library的版號資訊。
Requires: library所需要的library,可能會包含所需的版號資訊(=, <, >, <= or >=)。
Requires.private: 與 Requires相似,用於static link。
Conflicts: library可能與某個library衝突的資訊,可能會包含衝突的版號資訊(=, <, >, <= or >=)。
Cflags: 使用該library所需的compiler flags。
Libs: 使用該library所需的link flags。
Libs.private: 與Libs相似,用於static link。

pkg-config操作

基本語法為pkg-config [input parameters] [LIBRARIES...]相關input參數可以參考man page
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --modversion --print-errors directfb
1.2.10
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --cflags --print-errors directfb
-D_REENTRANT -I/usr/include/directfb
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --libs --print-errors directfb
-ldirectfb -lpthread -lfusion -ldirect -lpthread
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --libs --static --print-errors directfb
-ldirectfb -lpthread -ldl -lfusion -ldirect -lpthread -ldl
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --print-requires --print-errors directfb
fusion
direct
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --print-requires --print-errors "directfb > 1.3"
Requested 'directfb > 1.3' but version of DirectFB is 1.2.10
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --exists --print-errors directfb
brook@vista:~$ echo $?
0
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --exists --print-errors directfbxx
Package directfbxx was not found in the pkg-config search path.
Perhaps you should add the directory containing `directfbxx.pc'
to the PKG_CONFIG_PATH environment variable
No package 'directfbxx' found
brook@vista:~$ echo $?
1

pkg-config實際應用

With GCC
brook@vista:~$ pkg-config --cflags --libs directfb
-D_REENTRANT -I/usr/include/directfb -ldirectfb -lpthread -lfusion -ldirect -lpthread
brook@vista:~$ gcc `pkg-config --cflags --libs directfb` -o myapp myapp.c

With autoconf and automake
configure.ac:
PKG_CHECK_MODULES([DIRECTFB], [directfb])

Makefile.am:
myapp_CFLAGS = $(DIRECTFB_CFLAGS)
myapp_LDADD = $(DIRECTFB_LIBS)

    參考資料:
  1. 簡介 pkg-config 的功能與用法, http://yczhuang.blogspot.tw/2007/04/pkg-config.html
  2. Guide to pkg-config, https://people.freedesktop.org/~dbn/pkg-config-guide.html#writing
  3. pkg-config 使用及建立方法, http://jyhshin.pixnet.net/blog/post/26588033-pkg-config-%E4%BD%BF%E7%94%A8%E5%8F%8A%E5%BB%BA%E7%AB%8B%E6%96%B9%E6%B3%95